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What is a Human Body and How it Works?

Exploring the Intricacies of the Human Body: Anatomy, Functions, Systems, Diseases, & Cures

Here is a precise and unique answer to “What is a human body and how it works?”. Your human body is a seamless blend of 3 inter-related and inter-dependent ingredients, namely physical matter, processes or systems, and soul.

Though soul makes an invisible component of the body, it is the most important one. In the absence of soul, the matter and systems of the human body will be unable to hold together.

A common name of the soul is life. If there is no life, the other two constituent of the human body are useless. And a person without life is not called by their name. Instead, they are referred to as a corpse or a dead body.

The physical ingredient of the body renders it proper shape and support. There are different parts of the body which are inter-connected and work in coordination. These parts are called organs. And there are around 80 organs of the body.

Functions, processes, and systems collectively make up the third major constituent of the human body. Mostly, a function is characterized by some sort of movement.

A function of the body can be related to a single organ, or it may be a collective endeavor of multiple organs of the body. When inter-related organs of the body work in a coordinated manner to execute a function, the overall setup is known as a system of the human body.

Read on to discover more about “What is a human body and how it works?”

Contents:

  • Levels of organization in your body
  • Organ systems of the body
  • 80 organs of the body
  • Common diseases
  • FAQs

Different Levels of Organization in a Human Body and How They Work

Human body in general is perhaps the most complex thing on the planet Earth. There are several levels of organization in a human body, moving from simplicity to the ultimate complexity.

As we move from the simplest to the most complex level of organization in a human body, we come across sub-atomic particles, atoms, molecules, compounds, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems.

What is Soul and How It Makes a Human Body Work?

Soul is an invisible, abstract, and metaphysical aspect of a human body. At the same time, it is the most important and vital component.

You can have an idea about the incredible importance of soul that there shall be no growth, reproduction, and even movement in a body in the absence of soul.

Soul is alternatively known as life which is the opposite of death.

Material or Physical Component of the Human Body

The material or physical component of the human body consists of sub-atomic particles, atoms, molecules, compounds, organelles, cellular structures, tissues, organs, and finally organ systems.

All these smaller and bigger components make up the physical and visible part of the human body. It is opposed to the immaterial aspect called human soul.

Processes or Organ Systems of the Body

Various organs of the human body work in a seamlessly high and efficient level of collaborations to successfully execute a specific function in the human body.

Such a collaborative functional unit is called an organ system. There are nearly a dozen organ systems in the human body.

The organs systems of the human body include:

  1. Integumentary System: Comprising the skin and its appendages, the integumentary system makes the outermost layer of the human body. Its primary task is to act as a barrier or an insulator wall between the body’s internal and external environments.

The integumentary system also houses some of the organs of the exocrine system, e.g., the sweat and sebaceous glands.

  1. Digestive System: Also called gastrointestinal system, the human digestive system is assigned the tough job of breaking down complex compounds of food into smaller and easily diffusible particles.

The smaller food particles are then absorbed into the blood and reach individual cells for the extraction of energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

The major organs of the digestive system include the mouth, the esophagus, the stomach, and the small intestine.

  • Excretory System: Concerned with the maintenance of the internal chemical homeostasis, the excretory system helps the body get rid of metabolic and other wastes.

In the immature days of medical science, excretion was narrowly defined as the disposal of semi-solid wastes (feces) outside of the body, using the gastrointestinal pathway.

But now with the advent of medical science, excretion includes the removal of any metabolic or other waste substances from the body for the ultimate maintenance of chemical homeostasis.

  1. Cardiovascular System: Also known as the circulatory system, it accomplishes the job of supplying every nook and corner of the body with blood.
    For the execution of this endeavor, the cardiovascular system uses a pumping organ (the heart) and a vast network of blood carrying vessels.
  2. Skeletal System: This is what gives support and shape to your body. Appearing as an endoskeleton, it initially consists of about 270 bones at the time of birth. Some of the bones fuse together to give a total count of 206 as a person reaches their adulthood.
  3. Muscular System: While the bones give you support and maintain shape of your body, the muscular system is responsible for movement and maintenance of posture.

Also, there is a less known function of the muscular system. That is, it provides pathways for the circulation of the blood throughout the body.

Here is another piece of startling information about the muscular system. According to Wikipedia, the muscular system is not an organ system but a single organ.

  • Nervous System: The nervous system in the human body further consists of two sub-systems, i.e., the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. Overall, the nervous system executes two major tasks.

First, it uses nerves and the brain for the processing of sensory information collected from the organs of sense (eye, ear, nose, tongue, and skin). It causes the muscles to contract to initiate physical movements.

  • Endocrine System: Also known as the messenger system of the body, the endocrine system uses internal glands to secrete and release hormones into the blood stream. These hormones act as feedback loops and play their part in the regulation of distant target organs.

You can call it a chemical communication network that coordination various processes in the human body.

  1. Exocrine System: While the endocrine system relies on endocrine or internally located glands for the execution of its assigned jobs, the exocrine system harvests the potential of the exocrine glands.

Sweat, slavery, sebaceous, mucous, mammary, prostate, and lacrimal glands are the examples of exocrine glands. Secretion of sebum, sweat, and mucus are some of the functions of the exocrine system.

  1. Lymphatic System: Consisting of the lymph transporting vessels, called the lymphatic vessels, the lymphatic system makes significant functional contribution to two other systems, i.e., the circulatory system and the immune or defense system of the body.

Structurally, the lymphatic or lymphoid system is made up of a huge network of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and lymphoid tissues.

Knowing the structure and function of the lymphatic system is essential for the proper understanding of “What is human body and how it works?”

  1. Respiratory System: Superficially appearing to be connected with inhalation and exhalation, the respiratory system has got some deep functionalities. Its overall functionalities revolve around the absorption of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide from the blood.
  • Digestive System: As the very name suggests, the digestive is primarily concerned with the digestion of food. However, it is also responsible for the absorption of the particles of the digested food into the blood stream.

Meanwhile, as the digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract extending from the mouth till the anus, it also facilitates the disposal of the waste or undigested matter outside of the body.

In this way, the digestive system helps out another major system of the body, i.e., the excretory system.

  • Urinary System: Also called renal system, the urinary system helps the body get rid of waste substances. In this way, it may be considered as a component or sub-system of the excretory system.

Additional functions of the urinary system include the regulation of blood volume and blood pressure.

  • Reproductive System (Female and Male): Varying both structurally and functionally across the male and female genders, the reproductive is primarily assigned the task of producing offspring for the maintenance and propagation of human race.

80 Organs of the Body and Their Functions in Brief

  1. Brain – The Cockpit of Your Body

The brain is the master organ which acts as a cockpit or control room of the body. You can also call it the chief executive of the body. It controls, coordinates, and smoothens the functioning of all the body cells, organs, and organ systems.

  1. Eyes – Visualizing the World

Bringing you the mesmerizing beauty of the world, the eyes are the wonder organs of the body. However, their job is quite simple. That is, they just take a photograph of the thing you see and forward it to the brain where the actual mechanism of perception occurs.

  1. Ears – Sound and Balance

The ear is an organ of the body that let’s you enjoy the music of nature. In the absence of this fascinating organ, you wouldn’t be able to makes sense of sound or music around you!

However, the ears have also got a secondary function, i.e., the maintenance of balance and equilibrium.

  1. Nose – Smell, Aesthetic, & Cleanliness

The nose is your body’s air conditioner.

Your body’s respiratory and olfactory organ, the nose makes a voluminous contribution to the understanding of “What is human body and how it works?” In addition to serving purified and moistened air to the lungs, the nose gives you the sense of pleasant or foul smell.

Meanwhile, it also makes significant aesthetic contribution to your face’s shape.

Other functions of the nose include filtering debris from the current of air going towards the lungs. Also, the air gets moistened and warmed.

The functions of the nose are specifically performed in a cavity, called nasal cavity.

  1. Mouth – Eating and Speaking

Beginning with lips and ending at the beginning of throat, your mouth consists of an oval-shaped cavity inside the skull.

This oral or buccal cavity houses some important organs of the body, including the tongue, the salivary glands, the soft palate, the hard palate, the teeth, the gums, the vestibule, and the lips.

The primary job is this organ of the body is to facilitate in the process of eating and speaking.

  1. Tongue – Digestion, Taste, Swallowing, Speaking, and Breathing

While the tongue is usually perceived as an organ that helps in tasting food, it does several other jobs as well. For example, as a digestive organ, it helps in the selection, chewing, lubricating, and swallowing food.

On the other hand, the tongue plays a part in modifying the egressive or outgoing airstream to speak out different words clearly.

  1. Teeth – Catching, Grinding, and Masticating Food, Speaking, Defense

Anchored on jaws, the teeth are unusually hard and resistant structures that perform several important functions during the processes of digestion and producing sounds in language.

In the digestive system, their job is to catch, grind, and masticate food. In the production of language, their job is to assist in pronouncing the dental sounds, like / θ / and / ð /.

Also, the teeth make a part of the defense system of the body.

  1. Salivary Glands – Lubrication, Swallowing, Digestion, and Defense

Secreting saliva or spit and emptying it into the mouth cavity, the salivary glands perform multiple jobs. The functions of these organs include lubrication and digestion of the food.

Also, they assist in swallowing the food. Yet another job of the salivary glands is to shield your teeth against the cavity-causing bacteria.

  1. Adrenal glands – Metabolism, Immunity, Blood Pressure, & Stress Response

Attached to the top of each kidney, the adrenal glands are two small gland that produce body’s chemical messengers, called hormones.

The hormones produced by the adrenal glands execute multiple functions in the body. For example, they help in the regulation of the metabolic processes, assisting the immune or defense system of the body, generation response to stress, and regulating blood pressure.

  1. Anus – Excretion, Bowel Regulation

Located at the terminal end of the gastrointestinal tract, this 2-inch-long canal play an important role in the removal of digestive waste or stool from the body.

This excretory organ is provided with two sphincters which help in the regulation of bowel. Rich in nerve ending, it is a very sensitive organ of the body.

  1. Appendix – Immunity, Fighting Diseases

Measuring about 5 to 10 cm, appendix is a blind tube connected to the gastrointestinal tract at the point of junction between small and large intestine.

Sitting in the lower right part of the abdomen, it is usually considered as a vestigial organ as its removal after infancy does not affect the normal working of the human body.

However, according to Johns Hopkins Medicine, the appendix acts as a working part of the body in young children.

  1. Bladder – Storage of Urine, Excretion

Sitting in the lower abdomen, the bladder is a triangle-shaped hollow pouch performs two important functions in the human body.

First, it relaxes and expands its walls to temporarily store urine. Second, at the time of urination, the bladder’s walls flatten to discharge urine out of the body through urethra.

Did you know the urine can store 400 to 600ml of urine at a time while utilizing its normal capacity?

  1. Bones – Movement, Protection, & Manufacturing Blood Cells

The bones play an important role in the understanding of “What is a human body and how it works?” Ranking next to teeth on the hardness scale, the bones are living, mineral-based tissues in your body that form your body’s skeleton.

The functions of bones include movement, protection of vital body organs (like the heart, the brain, and the lungs), manufacturing blood cells, and the storage and regulation of minerals. A variety of cells are produced in the bone marrow, which are critical for survival.

Other functions of the bones include giving shape to your body, facilitating breathing, playing a part in the maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

At the time of birth, an infant has around 270 bones that fuse to become 206 to 213 bones in human adults. The total count of bones varying between 206 and 213 in adults is because some human beings may have different number of digits, vertebrae, and ribs.

Corresponding to the need for the performance for delicate and gross motor functions, the bones in the human body may vary in their strength, size, and shape.

Lastly, there is an important question about bones, that is “Is bone a tissue or an organ?” According to National Library of Medicine, though bones are static structures, they truly function as an organ of the body. Also, as an organ, they are valuable and perform several tasks.

  1. Bone Marrow

Before talking about the structure of bone marrow and its role in the understanding of “What is a human body and how it works?”, it is pertinent to talk about their status as an organ.

According to National Center for Biotechnology Information, the bone marrow is a primary lymphoid organ. Meanwhile, the books on immunology and anatomy also define the bone marrow as a typical “primary lymphoid organ whose primary job is to produce lymphoid cells independent of antigens.

  1. Bronchi

The bronchi are the two main branches of your respiratory system that extend from the trachea or windpipe into the lungs. They divide further into smaller bronchioles to form an intricate network within the lungs. The bronchi function as conduits for air to allow it to pass in and out of the lungs during the process of respiration. These passageways are lined with cilia or tiny hair-like structures that help to trap and expel foreign particles, and prevent them from reaching the delicate tissues of the lungs. The bronchi also contain smooth muscles that can relax or contract to regulate airflow and maintain optimal oxygen exchange.

  1. Diaphragm

The diaphragm is a dome-shaped, muscular sheet positioned at the base of your chest cavity. It plays an important role in respiration by separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities. When your diaphragm contracts rhythmically and continually, it flattens and moves downward. This creates more space in the chest cavity for the lungs to expand, drawing in air for inhalation. Conversely, when your diaphragm relaxes, it resumes its dome shape, pushing air out of the lungs during exhalation. The diaphragm coordinates with other respiratory muscles to facilitate efficient breathing.

  1. Esophagus

Also colloquially called food pipe or gullet, the esophagus is a muscular tube that connects the throat (pharynx) to the stomach. The primary function of this organ is to transport food and liquids from your mouth to the stomach through a process known as peristalsis. The esophagus consists of layers of smooth muscle that contract rhythmically to push the ingested material downward. The upper part of the esophagus is under your voluntary control to allow for swallowing initiation, while the lower part works involuntarily. The esophagus also has a ring-like muscular structure called the lower esophageal sphincter, which prevents acid in stomach from flowing back into the esophagus.

  1. Fallopian Tubes

Also known as uterine tubes, the fallopian tubes are part of the female reproductive system. These slender tubes extend from each ovary to the uterus. The primary job of the fallopian tubes is to serve as a pathway for the egg released during ovulation to reach the uterus. If fertilization occurs, it usually happens within the fallopian tubes. The walls of the fallopian tubes are lined with cilia that create gentle currents to help propel the egg toward the uterus. The fallopian tubes are essential structures for successful reproduction and lead to a healthy pregnancy.

  1. Gall Bladder

The gall bladder is a small, pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver. Its main function is to store and concentrate bile, a digestive fluid secreted by the liver. Bile is released from the gall bladder into the small intestine to aid in the processes of digestion and absorption of fats. When stimulated by the hormone cholecystokinin, the gall bladder contracts and causes bile to be released into the common bile duct. From there, this fluid flows into the small intestine. The gall bladder plays a vital role in the breakdown and absorption of dietary fats, significantly contributing to the overall digestive process.

  1. Genitals

The term “genitals” refers to the external sexual or reproductive organs in both females and males. In males, the genitals include the penis and the scrotum. The penis is an external organ involved in sexual intercourse and urination. It contains erectile tissue that get engorged with blood during sexual arousal, leading to an erection. The scrotum is a pouch-like structure that houses the testicles or male reproductive glands. In females, the genitals include the vulva, which consists of the labia, vaginal opening, clitoris, and urethral opening. The genital organs are essential for sexual reproduction and the expression of gender identity.

  1. Heart

The heart is a fist-sized muscular organ located in the chest, slightly tilted to the left side. It is the pumping organ of the circulatory system, responsible for continuously circulating oxygenated blood to all parts of your body. The human heart has four chambers, i.e., two atria and two ventricles. The atria receive blood, while the job of ventricles is to pump it out. Valves within the heart ensure that blood only flows in one direction. The heart contracts rhythmically and continually, generating the force necessary to propel blood through the blood vessels, like arteries, capillaries, and veins. It is powered by electrical impulses that coordinate its pumping action, ensuring efficient circulation of oxygenated blood to tissues.

  1. Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus is a small hormone-secreting region located at the base of the brain, beneath the thalamus. Despite its small size, it plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis, regulating various functions of the body, and linking the endocrine and nervous systems. The hormonal secretions of the hypothalamus control essential processes such as body temperature, hunger, heart rate, thirst, sex drive, mood, sleep, and the release of hormones from the pituitary gland. It receives and integrates information from different organs of the body, making it a central hub for the coordination of physiological responses. The hypothalamus helps ensure the internal environment of your body remains balanced and responds appropriately to external stimuli.

  1. Joints

Joints are the connections between two or more bones in your body, enabling movement and providing structural support. They allow bones to articulate with one another while maintaining stability. Joints are of different types, including hinge joints (like the elbow), pivot joints (like the neck), and ball-and-socket joints (like the hip). They are composed of different structures, including cartilage, tendons, ligaments, synovial fluid, and the joint capsule. While ligaments connect bones and provide stability, cartilage acts as a cushion between bones. Joints allow for flexibility, smooth movement, weight-bearing, and facilitating your ability to perform a wide range of physical activities.

  1. Kidneys

Filtering a half cup of blood every minute, the kidneys are two bean-shaped fist-sized organs located in the back of your abdominal cavity, one on each side of your spine. They play a crucial role in maintaining overall health and homeostasis by filtering waste products, electrolytes, and excess water from the blood, and producing urine. Additionally, the kidneys help regulate blood pressure, secrete the hormones involved in red blood cell production, and balance acid-base levels in your body. Each kidney contains millions of tiny filtering units or nephrons, which actively remove waste products and reabsorb essential substances. By processing and eliminating waste, the kidneys contribute to your body’s fluid and electrolyte balance and the removal of metabolic by-products.

  1. Large Intestine

Measuring 5 feet and making one-fifth of the length of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the large intestine follows the small intestine and precedes the rectum. The 3 main functions of the large intestine are to absorb water and electrolytes from undigested food residue, absorb and produce vitamins, and form and propel feces. The large intestine is shorter in length but wider in diameter compared to the small intestine. It consists of several sections, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon. Rectum, the terminal part of the gastrointestinal tract, is considered a separate organ. The large intestine harbors beneficial bacteria that help in the process of digestion and produce certain vitamins.

  1. Larynx (Voice Box)

The larynx or voice box is a hollow, tubular structure located in your neck region, specifically in the upper part of the windpipe (trachea). It performs several important functions in your body. Primarily, as its name suggests, the voice box plays a key role in vocalization and production of speech sounds. Within the cartilaginous structure of the larynx are two folds of tissue called the vocal cords, which vibrate as air passes through them, producing different sounds. The pitch and volume of the voice you produce are regulated by the tension and position of these vocal cords. Additionally, the larynx serves as a protective mechanism during swallowing, closing off the airway to prevent liquid and food from entering your respiratory system. It also contains the epiglottis, a flap-like structure that covers the voice box during swallowing.

  1. Liver

The liver is the largest solid organ in your body that removes toxins from the blood and performs hundreds of other vital functions. This reddish-brown organ is located in the upper right part of the abdominal cavity. Its functions are crucial for overall health, which include detoxification of harmful substances, storage of vitamins and minerals, production of bile to help in fat digestion, regulation of blood glucose levels, synthesis of essential proteins, and metabolism of hormones and drugs. The liver also filters and processes blood coming from the gastrointestinal tract and creates nutrients. The remarkable regenerative capacity of liver allows it to repair and regenerate damaged tissue.

  1. Lungs

The lungs are a pair of soft and spongy, cone-shaped organs located in your chest cavity on either side of the heart. They play an important role in respiration, facilitating the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the bloodstream and the air. The lungs consist of lobes, with the left lung having two and the right lung having three. Within the lungs, smaller passageways or bronchioles are formed due to the branching of bronchial tubes. The bronchioles terminate in tiny air sacs called alveoli. It is in the alveoli that the exchange of respiratory gases occurs, with oxygen (O2) diffusing into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide (CO2) being expelled during exhalation. The lungs are protected by a lining (the pleura) and are surrounded by the rib cage for structural support.

  1. Lymph Nodes

Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped structures found throughout your body, forming part of the lymphatic system. They are also considered a part of the body’s immune system and play a crucial role in immunity and the body’s defense against infections. Lymph nodes filter lymph, a clear fluid containing immune cells, as it passes through them. They help the body trap and remove foreign substances, such as viruses, bacteria, and abnormal cells. Lymph nodes also serve as sites for immune cell activation and communication to facilitate an effective immune response. When the body is fighting an infection, lymph nodes may become tender and enlarged. Lymph nodes are interconnected by a network of lymphatic vessels, which transport lymph fluid throughout your body.

  1. Mammary Glands

Mammary glands are specialized milk-producing glands found in the breasts of females. These glandular organs develop during puberty and undergo further changes during pregnancy and lactation. Each gland consists of glandular tissue, which produces milk. There is a system of ducts to transport the milk to the nipple. Milk production is under the influence of hormones, particularly prolactin and oxytocin. Prolactin stimulates the production of milk, while oxytocin causes the release of milk during breastfeeding. Mammary glands also play an important role in providing nourishment and immune protection to newborns, promoting bonding between mother and baby.

  1. Mesentery

The mesentery is a membranous bilayer of peritoneum that attaches the organs like intestines to the abdominal wall to provide support and stability. It is a double-layered structure consisting of connective tissue and containing blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves that supply the intestines. The primary job of the mesentery is to anchor and suspend the intestines to allow them to move and function properly within the abdominal chamber. It also plays a role in providing a pathway for lymphatic vessels and blood vessels to reach the intestines. Recent research shows that the mesentery may have additional functions in your body’s immune response and metabolic regulation, although further research needed to fully understand its role.

  1. Ovary

An ovary is a reproductive organ found in females. It is a part of the female reproductive system and is responsible for the production of sex cells (eggs or ova) and the secretion of hormones, especially progesterone and estrogen. Each of the two ovaries in a female’s body is a small, almond-shaped structure located on either side of the uterus inside the pelvic cavity. During the menstrual cycle, the ovaries release an egg during the process of ovulation, which can be fertilized by sperm to start pregnancy. The ovaries also make hormones to regulate the menstrual cycle and contribute to the development of secondary sexual features. The ovaries play an important role in female fertility and reproductive health.

  1. Pancreas

The pancreas is an organ and a gland located in your abdomen, behind the stomach. It has both endocrine and exocrine functions in your body. As an exocrine gland, the pancreas produces digestive enzymes that are released into your small intestine to aid in the digestion and absorption of nutrients. These enzymes help in the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. As an endocrine gland, your pancreas secretes hormones, including insulin and glucagon, into the bloodstream. These hormones play a vital role in regulating metabolism and blood sugar levels. Insulin helps in lowering blood sugar levels, while glucagon raises them. Dysfunction of the pancreas, such as in pancreatic disorders or diabetes, can have significant effects on digestion and regulation of blood sugar.

  1. Pineal Gland

Also called conarium or epiphysis cerebri, the pineal gland is a small endocrine organ located in your brain, specifically in the epithalamus region. It plays an important role in the regulation of sleep-wake cycles and the creation of the melatonin hormone. The pineal gland is sensitive to light and helps in regulating the body’s circadian rhythm, which controls the sleep-wake cycle and other physiological functions. Melatonin hormone secreted by this gland helps regulate sleep patterns and is involved in the synchronization of various biological mechanisms with the natural light-dark cycle. The pineal gland is also plays a role in the regulation of reproductive hormones and may have other functions that are still being explored.

  1. Parathyroid Glands

The parathyroid glands are small, pea-sized glands located in your neck, near the thyroid gland. Despite similarity in their name, the parathyroid glands function independently from the thyroid gland. They produce and secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH), which plays a vital role in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. PTH helps in regulating the levels of these minerals in your blood by acting on the bones, intestines, and kidneys. It stimulates the release of calcium from your bones, improves the reabsorption of calcium by the kidneys, and increases the absorption of calcium from the intestines. The parathyroid glands are necessary for maintaining proper calcium balance in your body, which is crucial for bone health and different physiological processes.

  1. Pharynx

Also called throat, the pharynx is a muscular tube-like organ located behind the oral and nasal cavities and extends to the larynx and esophagus. It acts as a common pathway for both food and air. The pharynx plays a crucial role in the process of swallowing, as it serves as a passageway for the liquids and food from the mouth to the esophagus. It also has an important role in respiration, as air passes through the pharynx on its way to the lungs. The pharynx is lined with specialized mucous membranes and contains muscles that aid in producing swallowing reflex and the movement of air and food.

  1. Pituitary Gland

The pituitary gland, also known as hypophysis or the master gland of the endocrine system, is a small pea-sized organ located at the base of your brain below your hypothalamus, within a bony cavity called the sella turcica. It is often considered the most important endocrine gland in your body because it controls the functions of many other endocrine glands. The pituitary gland has two main parts: the anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary. The anterior part produces and releases various hormones to regulate growth, metabolism, reproduction, and stress response. The posterior part stores and releases hormones produced by the hypothalamus, including antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin. These hormones play their role in water balance, childbirth, breastfeeding, and blood pressure regulation.

  1. Prostate

The prostate is a small gland found in males, situated just below the bladder and surrounding the urethra. It is a part of the male reproductive system and is involved in the production of semen. The prostate gland produces and secretes a fluid that forms a part of semen and provides nourishment and protection for sperm cells. The size and function of the prostate gland can be influenced by hormones, specially testosterone. As men age, this gland may undergo changes, such as enlargement, which can lead to symptoms like difficulty in urination. Regular prostate exams are essential for the early detection of any potential issues, including prostate cancer.

  1. Rectum

The rectum, also called the intestinum rectum, is the terminal part of the gastrointestinal tract, connecting the sigmoid colon to the anus. It serves as a temporary storage organ for feces before they are expelled out of your body during a bowel movement. The rectum has muscular walls that help propel the undigested matter towards the anus. It also has stretch receptors to provide sensations of fullness, signaling the need for defecation. The rectum is lined with specialized cells resist the passage of stool, preventing leakage and maintaining continence. Disorders of the rectum, such as rectal prolapse or hemorrhoids, can cause discomfort and may require medical attention.

  1. Skeletal Muscles

Comprising 30 to 40% of your total body mass, skeletal muscles are a type of voluntary muscle, meaning you can control when and how they work. They are attached to bones and facilitate movement and provide support to your body. They are responsible for your ability to walk, run, lift objects, and perform different movements. Skeletal muscles are under your conscious control and work in coordination with your nervous system. They contain long, cylindrical cells called muscle fibers that are bundled together and connected to bones by tendons. When stimulated by nerve impulses, these fibers contract and generate force to allow for movement. Skeletal muscles also play a part in maintaining your posture, stabilizing joints, and generating body heat. Regular exercise and proper nutrition are essential for the health and function of your skeletal muscles.

  1. Skin

Weighing about six pounds in an average person, your skin is the largest organ of your body and serves as a protective barrier between the internal organs and the external environment. It comprises three main layers: the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue. The skin performs several important functions, including regulating your body temperature, protecting against physical and chemical damage, preventing dehydration, and serving as a sensory organ. It contains various structures such as hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands. The skin also plays a role in vitamin D synthesis and immune response. It is highly vascularized and assists in the elimination of waste products through sweat. Maintaining good skin health through proper hygiene and protection is necessary for your overall well-being.

  1. Small Intestine

The small intestine is a long, narrow, coiled tube lying between the stomach and large intestine. This organ is the primary site for digestion and absorption of nutrients from the food you consume. The small intestine (small bowel) is divided into three sections: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Its highly specialized lining with microscopic finger-like projections called villi, increases the surface area for absorption. The small intestine receives digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile from the liver to break down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into smaller, simpler molecules that can be absorbed into your bloodstream. Nutrient absorption occurs through the walls of the small intestine, where they are transported to different tissues and organs for utilization.

  1. Spinal Cord

Weighing about 35g and measuring 1cm in diameter, the spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nerve tissue that extends from the base of your brain down through the vertebral column. It serves as a vital part of your central nervous system (CNS), along with your brain. The spinal cord helps in transmitting nerve signals between your brain and the rest of your body. It is responsible for relaying sensory information from your body to the brain and coordinating motor responses from your brain to the body. The spinal cord is protected by bony structures of the vertebral column and is wrapped by protective membranes called meninges. Injury or damage to the spinal cord can result in severe sensory and motor deficits.

  1. Spleen

Weighing around 200g, the spleen is a soft, fist-sized organ located in the upper left part of your abdomen, beneath the rib cage. It is considered as two organs in one, as it makes a part of the lymphatic system and serves as a filter for the blood, removing old or damaged red blood cells and certain bacteria. It also helps to store healthy platelets and red blood cells, releasing them when needed. Additionally, the spleen plays a part in the immune response by producing and housing certain types of white blood cells, called lymphocytes. The spleen also helps in the production of antibodies and is involved in the body’s defense against infections. Removal of the spleen (splenectomy) is sometimes essential in certain medical conditions but can increase the risk of certain infections.

  1. Stomach

The stomach is a muscular, J-shaped intraperitoneal digestive organ located in your upper abdomen, on the left side of your body. It is a part of the digestive system and serves as a temporary storage site for food and a site of digestion. The stomach receives food boluses from the esophagus and releases digestive juices, including hydrochloric acid (HCL) and enzymes, to break down proteins and other nutrients. The inner lining of your stomach comprises specialized cells that produce mucus to protect its wall from the acidic environment. The stomach muscles contract and mix the food matter with the digestive juices, forming a semi-liquid mass called chyme. From the stomach, the chyme gradually enters the small intestine for further digestion and absorption of nutrients.

  1. Thymus Gland

Your thymus gland is a small lymphoid organ located in your chest, behind the sternum. It is essential for the development and maturation of T lymphocytes, which are important for your immune system function. During childhood and adolescence, your thymus gland is at its largest and most active. It produces and releases immature T cells, which migrate to other lymphoid organs, such as the spleen and lymph nodes, to complete their maturation process. The thymus gland gradually decreases in size and activity with age, and its role in your immune system diminishes. However, it continues to support immune function throughout your life.

  1. Thyroid

Your thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of your neck, below the Adam’s apple. It is a part of your endocrine system and plays a vital role in regulating metabolism, growth, and development in your body. The thyroid secretes hormones, primarily triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), which help control the rate at which cells convert nutrients into energy. These hormones also affect heart rate, body temperature, and the production of other hormones. Your thyroid gland is regulated by the pituitary, which releases thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) to signal the thyroid to produce and release its hormones. Dysfunction of the thyroid gland can lead to different conditions, such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.

  1. Trachea

Also known as the windpipe, your trachea is a tube-like structure that connects the larynx (voice box) to the bronchi to allow air to pass in and out of your lungs. It is located in your neck and upper chest region and consists of rings of cartilage that provide structural support. The trachea is lined with ciliated and mucus-secreting cells, which help trap and remove foreign particles and assist in breathing. When you inhale, air enters the trachea and travels down into the bronchi and then into your lungs. The trachea plays a crucial function in the respiratory system, ensuring the smooth flow of air between the lungs and the external environment.

  1. Ureters

The ureters are muscular tubes connecting the kidneys to the urinary bladder. There are two ureters in your body, one for each kidney. Their primary function is to transport urine, which is produced in the kidneys, down to the bladder for temporary storage and eventual elimination. The ureters have a smooth muscle lining that contracts to produce rhythmic wave-like motion, known as peristalsis, to propel urine from your kidneys to the bladder. The ureters also have a valve-like mechanism at their junction with the urinary bladder to prevent backflow of urine. Disorders or blockages in the ureters can lead to urinary tract infections or formation of kidney stone.

  1. Urethra

Your urethra is a tube that carries urine from your urinary bladder to the external opening of your body. In males, it also serves as a passage for seminal fluid during ejaculation. The length and structure of the urethra differ between human males and females. In men, the urethra is longer and runs through the penis, while in women, it is shorter and located closer to the vaginal opening. The urethra has a lining of specialized cells that help in the excretion of urine and the passage of semen. In addition to its urinary and reproductive roles, the male urethra also plays a part in the transport of sperm.

  1. Uterus

The uterus, also known as the womb, is a hollow, muscular organ in the pelvis of females. It is a key part of the female reproductive system and plays an important role in supporting the fetal development during pregnancy. The uterus has a thick, muscular wall that expands to accommodate a growing fetus. It has a lining of a soft tissue called the endometrium, which thickens and sheds itself during the menstrual cycle. If fertilization occurs, the fertilized egg is implanted in the uterus and is developed into a fetus. The uterus contracts during labor to facilitate the childbirth. If pregnancy does not occur, the uterus sheds its lining during menstruation.

  1. Human Skeleton

The human skeleton is the internal framework of the body that provides structure, support, and protection to various organs and tissues. It consists of bones, which are connected by joints and held together by ligaments. The skeleton is divided into two main parts: the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton includes the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage, while the appendicular skeleton includes the bones of the limbs, shoulders, and hips. The skeleton serves multiple functions, including providing support for the body, enabling movement through its joints, protecting vital organs, producing blood cells in the bone marrow, and storing minerals such as calcium and phosphorus.

  1. Ligaments

Ligaments are tough, fibrous connective tissues that connect bones to other bones, providing stability and strength to joints. They are composed mainly of collagen fibers and are flexible but not highly elastic. Ligaments play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and range of motion of joints by limiting excessive movements and preventing dislocations. They also provide proprioceptive feedback, which helps in coordinating muscle contractions and maintaining joint stability. Ligaments are found in various joints throughout the body, including the knees, ankles, elbows, and wrists. Injuries to ligaments, such as sprains or tears, can result in joint instability and require medical attention and rehabilitation.

  1. Tendons

Tendons are tough, fibrous connective tissues that connect muscles to bones. They are made up of collagen fibers and are responsible for transmitting the force generated by muscles to the bones, allowing movement to occur. Tendons are flexible but not highly elastic and are designed to withstand tension and resist tearing. They play a vital role in coordinating muscle contractions and facilitating joint movements. Tendons are found throughout the body, attached to various muscles and bones. Common examples include the Achilles tendon, which connects the calf muscles to the heel bone, and the biceps tendon, which connects the biceps muscle to the shoulder and forearm bones.

  1. Blood Cells

Blood cells are specialized cells that are essential for the proper functioning of the circulatory system and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues throughout the body. There are three main types of blood cells: red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets (thrombocytes). Red blood cells are responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the body’s tissues and removing carbon dioxide. White blood cells are part of the immune system and help fight off infections and diseases. Platelets are involved in blood clotting, preventing excessive bleeding when an injury occurs. These blood cells are produced in the bone marrow and circulate throughout the body within the blood vessels.

  1. Vagina

The vagina is a muscular canal that forms part of the female reproductive system. It is located between the external genitals, known as the vulva, and the cervix of the uterus. The vagina serves several important functions, including acting as a passageway for menstrual blood to leave the body during menstruation and for the baby to pass through during childbirth. It also facilitates sexual intercourse and provides a connection between the external and internal reproductive organs. The walls of the vagina are highly elastic and can stretch to accommodate various activities, such as childbirth and sexual penetration. The vagina is also lined with mucus membranes and has a unique pH level to maintain a healthy environment for the reproductive system.

  1. Vulva

The vulva refers to the external genital organs of the female reproductive system. It includes several structures, such as the labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, vestibule, and vaginal opening. The vulva acts as a protective covering for the internal reproductive organs and plays a crucial role in sexual pleasure and reproduction. The labia majora are the outer lips of the vulva, while the labia minora are the inner lips. The clitoris is a small, sensitive organ located at the top of the vulva that plays a significant role in sexual arousal. The vestibule contains the openings of the urethra and the vagina. The vulva varies in appearance among individuals and undergoes changes throughout a woman’s life, such as during puberty and pregnancy.

  1. Clitoris

The clitoris is a highly sensitive and erectile organ located at the top of the vulva in females. It is considered the primary source of sexual pleasure and plays a crucial role in female sexual arousal. The clitoris is composed of a glans, a small protrusion visible at the top of the vulva, and a shaft that extends internally. It contains a dense network of nerve endings, making it highly sensitive to touch and stimulation. During sexual arousal, the clitoris becomes engorged with blood, causing it to become erect and more sensitive. Stimulation of the clitoris can lead to sexual satisfaction and orgasm for many individuals.

  1. Placenta

The placenta is a temporary organ that develops during pregnancy and is essential for the nourishment and oxygenation of the developing fetus. It forms within the uterus and attaches to the uterine wall. The placenta acts as a bridge between the mother and the fetus, allowing the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products. It also produces hormones, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and progesterone, which are crucial for maintaining pregnancy. The placenta is connected to the fetus through the umbilical cord, which contains blood vessels that carry oxygenated and nutrient-rich blood to the fetus and remove waste products. After childbirth, the placenta is expelled from the uterus during the process of delivery.

  1. Testes

The testes, also known as the testicles, are the male reproductive organs responsible for the production of sperm and the secretion of testosterone, the primary male sex hormone. They are located within the scrotum, a sac-like structure outside the body that helps regulate the temperature of the testes for optimal sperm production. The testes consist of tiny coiled tubules called seminiferous tubules, where sperm cells are produced through a process called spermatogenesis. The testes also contain specialized cells called Leydig cells that produce testosterone. Sperm cells are eventually transported from the testes through a series of ducts, including the epididymis, vas deferens, and ejaculatory ducts, before being released during ejaculation.

  1. Epididymis

The epididymis is a coiled tube located on the posterior surface of each testicle in males. It plays a vital role in the maturation and storage of sperm cells. The epididymis receives sperm from the testes via a network of tubules and provides them with an environment conducive to their development and motility. Sperm cells undergo maturation and acquire the ability to swim and fertilize an egg while in the epididymis. They are stored within the epididymal duct until they are released during ejaculation.

  1. Vas Deferens

The vas deferens, also known as the ductus deferens, is a long tube that connects the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct. It is a part of the male reproductive system and transports mature sperm from the epididymis to the urethra during ejaculation. The vas deferens ascends from the scrotum through the inguinal canal and passes over the urinary bladder. Within the pelvic cavity, it joins the ejaculatory duct, which combines with the seminal vesicles to form the ejaculatory ducts. The vas deferens has a muscular wall that contracts during ejaculation to propel sperm and other fluids from the reproductive system.

  1. Seminal Vesicles

The seminal vesicles are a pair of glands located near the base of the bladder in males. They secrete a fluid known as seminal fluid, which is a vital component of semen. The fluid produced by the seminal vesicles accounts for a significant portion of the volume of ejaculate. Seminal fluid contains various substances, including fructose, prostaglandins, and enzymes, which provide nourishment and energy for sperm and help facilitate their movement. The fluid from the seminal vesicles combines with sperm from the vas deferens and secretions from other accessory glands, such as the prostate gland, to form semen.

  1. Bulbourethral Glands

The bulbourethral glands, also called Cowper’s glands, are small pea-sized glands located below the prostate gland in males. These glands are a part of the male reproductive system and play a role in the production of semen. The bulbourethral glands secrete a clear, slippery fluid that lubricates and neutralizes the acidity of the urethra prior to ejaculation. This lubricating fluid helps facilitate the passage of semen through the urethra during sexual intercourse. The secretion from the bulbourethral glands is released just before ejaculation and is an essential component of seminal fluid.

  1. Penis

The penis is the male external reproductive organ and serves multiple functions, including sexual intercourse, urination, and the passage of semen. It consists of three main parts: the root, the body, and the glans. The root of the penis attaches it to the pelvic region, while the body is composed of erectile tissue that becomes engorged with blood during sexual arousal, resulting in an erection. The glans, located at the tip of the penis, is highly sensitive and covered by the foreskin in uncircumcised individuals. The urethra, which carries both urine and semen, runs through the penis. During sexual intercourse, the penis enters the vagina, allowing for fertilization of an egg and sexual pleasure.

  1. Nails

While the status of a nail as an organ is debated, according to Thompson Rivers University, nails are accessory organs of your skin. Nails are made of dead keratinocytes, and found on your fingers and toes. They have three main parts: the root, plate, and free margin. There are other structures like the nail bed, cuticle, and nail fold. Nails grow from a living tissue called the nail matrix. They perform various functions, including protection, enhancing sensations, and acting as tools. Nails also provide indications of health status and are susceptible to fungal infections. Additionally, proper hygiene practices are crucial to prevent the transmission of infections.

  1. Scrotum

The scrotum is an external sac of skin and smooth muscle located behind the penis in males. Its primary function is to protect and support the testicles, which are responsible for producing sperm and the male sex hormone testosterone. The scrotum helps regulate the temperature of the testes by contracting or relaxing its muscles to bring them closer to or farther away from the body. This temperature regulation is essential for maintaining proper sperm development and function. The scrotum is sensitive to touch and plays a role in sexual arousal and pleasure.

  1. Parathyroid Glands

The parathyroid glands are small, pea-sized glands located near or embedded within the thyroid gland in the neck. Despite their similar name, they function independently of the thyroid gland. The parathyroid glands play a crucial role in regulating the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the body. They produce a hormone called parathyroid hormone (PTH), which acts to increase blood calcium levels by stimulating the release of calcium from bones, increasing absorption of calcium from the intestines, and reducing excretion of calcium in the kidneys. Proper functioning of the parathyroid glands is essential for maintaining healthy bone density and normal neuromuscular function.

  1. Foramen Ovale

The foramen ovale is a small opening located between the right and left atria (upper chambers) of the heart in a developing fetus. During fetal development, this opening allows oxygenated blood to bypass the non-functioning fetal lungs. Instead, it directs the blood from the right atrium to the left atrium, where it can be pumped to the body through the left ventricle. The foramen ovale is a part of the fetal circulatory system and closes shortly after birth as the lungs become functional and blood flow patterns change. Its closure is essential for normal postnatal circulation.

  1. Arteries

Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to various parts of the body. They have thick, muscular walls that help withstand the high pressure generated by the heart’s pumping action. Arteries branch out into smaller vessels called arterioles, which further divide into tiny capillaries that deliver oxygen and nutrients to individual cells. Arteries play a crucial role in maintaining proper blood circulation throughout the body, delivering oxygen-rich blood to tissues and organs. The largest artery in the body is the aorta, which originates from the left ventricle of the heart and distributes blood to all other arteries.

  1. Veins

Veins are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the body’s tissues back to the heart. Unlike arteries, veins have thinner walls and contain valves that help prevent the backflow of blood. Veins collect blood from capillaries and progressively merge into larger vessels as they approach the heart. Ultimately, veins return the deoxygenated blood to the right atrium of the heart, where it is then pumped to the lungs for oxygenation. Veins also serve as a storage reservoir for blood, capable of expanding or contracting to accommodate changes in blood volume.

  1. Capillaries

Capillaries are the smallest and thinnest blood vessels in the body, connecting arterioles (small arteries) and venules (small veins). Capillaries form an intricate network throughout the tissues and organs, allowing for the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, waste products, and hormones between the blood and surrounding cells. Their thin walls are composed of a single layer of endothelial cells, which facilitates the diffusion of substances. Capillaries play a vital role in the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues and the removal of metabolic waste products.

  1. Lymphatic Vessel

Lymphatic vessels are a part of the lymphatic system, which is responsible for maintaining fluid balance and facilitating immune function in the body. These vessels collect lymph, a clear fluid that contains white blood cells and waste products, from the tissues and transport it back to the bloodstream. Lymphatic vessels are found throughout the body, alongside blood vessels. They form a network that gradually merges into larger lymphatic vessels and eventually drains into lymph nodes. Lymphatic vessels play a crucial role in immune surveillance, filtering harmful substances, and transporting immune cells to fight infections.

  1. Tonsils

Tonsils are a part of the lymphatic system and are located at the back of the throat. There are three types of tonsils: the palatine tonsils, lingual tonsils, and adenoids (pharyngeal tonsils). Tonsils are masses of lymphoid tissue that help defend against infections by trapping and filtering harmful pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses, that enter through the mouth and nose. They produce immune cells and antibodies to combat infections. While tonsils are important for immune function, they can sometimes become inflamed or infected, leading to conditions such as tonsillitis.

  1. Nerves

Nerves are specialized cells that transmit electrical impulses throughout the body, allowing for communication between different parts of the body and the brain. They are the fundamental units of the nervous system, which controls and coordinates bodily functions. Nerves consist of nerve cells called neurons, which are interconnected through synapses. They are responsible for sensory perception, motor control, and the regulation of bodily processes. Nerves can be classified into different types, including sensory nerves that carry signals from sensory organs to the brain, motor nerves that control muscle movements, and autonomic nerves that regulate involuntary functions such as heart rate and digestion.

  1. Subcutaneous Tissue

Subcutaneous tissue, also known as the hypodermis, is the deepest layer of the skin located beneath the dermis. It is composed of fat cells (adipocytes) and connective tissue that provide insulation, cushioning, and energy storage. The subcutaneous tissue helps regulate body temperature by insulating the body and acts as a shock absorber, protecting underlying structures. It also plays a role in the body’s metabolism by storing and releasing fat as needed. Additionally, subcutaneous tissue contains blood vessels and nerves that supply the skin and help maintain its health.

  1. Olfactory Epithelium

The olfactory epithelium is a specialized tissue located within the nasal cavity that is responsible for the sense of smell. It consists of a thin layer of cells, including olfactory receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. When airborne odor molecules enter the nasal cavity, they bind to the olfactory receptor cells in the olfactory epithelium, initiating a chemical signal that is transmitted to the brain for interpretation. The olfactory epithelium is highly sensitive and can detect a wide range of odors, contributing to our sense of taste and overall sensory perception.

  1. Cerebellum

The cerebellum is a distinct structure located at the back of the brain, beneath the cerebrum. It plays a crucial role in coordinating voluntary movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills. The cerebellum receives sensory input from the spinal cord, muscles, and joints, as well as information from other areas of the brain, and integrates and processes this information to regulate and refine motor movements. It helps with tasks such as posture, balance, coordination, and smooth execution of movements. Additionally, the cerebellum is involved in cognitive functions such as attention, language, and memory.

  1. Nasal Cavity

The nasal cavity is the hollow space located behind your nose and above your mouth. It serves as the initial passage for air entering your body’s respiratory system. The nasal cavity has a lining of a specialized mucous membrane that contains numerous blood vessels and mucus-producing cells. Also, there are hairs lining the inside of the cavity, which serve as a part of the air-cleansing system. Its job is to warm, humidify, and filter the air before it reaches your lungs. Your nasal cavity also aids in the sense of smell, as it houses the olfactory epithelium, which contains receptors to detect odors. Additionally, your nasal chamber helps resonate sound during speech production.

  1. Interstitium – the 80th & the Biggest Organ That Remained Unknown for Sow Long

Discovered in 2018, the interstitium is the 80th organ of your body that can help to understand the spread of cancer in the body. It consists of fluid-filled compartments that exist between cells and tissues throughout your body. It is the “biggest organ” that remained hidden from plain sight for so long. Interstitium serves as a supportive structure and a pathway for the movement of fluids, nutrients, and waste products between blood vessels and cells. The interstitium consists of a complex network of connective tissues and collagen fibers that maintain the shape and structure of organs. Recent research has suggested the role of interstitium in immune responses and disease processes.

10 Common Diseases with Symptoms, Treatments, & Precautions

Below is a list of 10 common diseases of humans along with symptoms, treatments, and precautions.

  1. Influenza (Flu):
    • Symptoms: Fever, sore throat, stuffy or runny nose, cough, body aches, headaches, and fatigue.
    • Treatment: Rest, fluids (intake), over-the-counter pain relievers, and antiviral medications (in severe cases).
    • Precautions: Get an annual flu vaccine, avoid close contact with sick individuals, practice good hand hygiene, cover your mouth and nose when sneezing or coughing.
  2. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure):
    • Symptoms: Often asymptomatic, but can cause headaches, chest pain, dizziness, shortness of breath, and nosebleeds.
    • Treatment: Lifestyle modifications (diet, exercise, and stress reduction), medications (diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and beta-blockers,).
    • Precautions: Maintain a healthy body weight, follow a balanced diet plan high in fruits and vegetables and low in sodium, engage in regular physical activity, limit alcohol intake, manage stress.
  1. Diabetes:
    • Symptoms: Frequent urination, unexplained weight loss, excessive thirst, fatigue, slow wound healing, and blurred vision.
    • Treatment: Lifestyle changes (diet, exercise, and monitoring blood sugar level), medications (insulin, and oral antidiabetic drugs).
    • Precautions: Maintain a healthy weight, follow a balanced diet plan, regularly monitor blood sugar levels, take medications as prescribed by your healthcare professional, engage in regular exercise, and avoid smoking.
  2. Asthma:
    • Symptoms: Shortness of breath, coughing, wheezing, and chest tightness.
    • Treatment: Inhalers (e.g., bronchodilators and corticosteroids), avoidance of triggers, and following asthma action plan.
    • Precautions: Identify and avoid triggers (e.g., allergens and tobacco smoke), regularly take prescribed medications, develop and follow an asthma action plan, and keep rescue inhalers accessible.
  3. Cancer:
    • Symptoms: Vary depending on the type and stage of cancer (e.g., lumps, abnormal bleeding, persistent cough, and weight loss).
    • Treatment: Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy (varies by cancer type).
    • Precautions: Engage in regular screenings and early diagnostic tests, maintain a healthy lifestyle (limit alcohol, avoid tobacco, and eat a nutritious diet, and regularly take exercise), protect yourself from excessive sun exposure, keep track of your family history.
  4. Alzheimer’s Disease:
    • Symptoms: Memory loss, mood changes, confusion, disorientation, and difficulty with language.
    • Treatment: Medications (cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, etc.), cognitive stimulation, and supportive care.
    • Precautions: Engage in mentally stimulating activities, follow a heart-healthy diet, maintain social connections, exercise regularly, manage chronic conditions (e.g., hypertension and diabetes), and protect the brain from injury.
  1. Tuberculosis (TB):
    • Symptoms: Persistent cough, coughing up blood, chest pain, weight loss, fatigue, and night sweats.
    • Treatment: Antibiotics (usually multiple drugs), and directly observed therapy (DOT).
    • Precautions: Maintain your good respiratory hygiene (cover your mouth when coughing or sneezing), get vaccinated (BCG vaccine), avoid close contact with individuals with active TB, and follow infection control measures in healthcare settings.
  2. Rheumatoid Arthritis:
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, swelling, stiffness, fatigue, morning stiffness, and reduced range of motion.
    • Treatment: Medications (biologics, NSAIDs, and DMARDs), physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications.
    • Precautions: Maintain a healthy body weight, engage in regular physical activity (including joint-friendly exercises), protect your joints from injury, follow prescribed treatment plans, and manage stress.
  1. Depression:
    • Symptoms: Persistent sadness, loss of interest or pleasure, difficulty concentrating, changes in appetite or weight, fatigue, and thoughts of death or suicide.
    • Treatment: Psychotherapy (CBT, IPT) and the use of antidepressant medications (SSRIs, SNRIs).
    • Precautions: Seek social support, maintain a healthy lifestyle, engage in regular physical activity, practice stress management techniques, and seek professional help, if needed.
  2. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD):
    • Symptoms: Heartburn, chest pain, regurgitation, chronic cough, and difficulty swallowing.
    • Treatment: Healthy lifestyle modifications and use of medications (PPIs, H2 blockers).
    • Precautions: Maintain a healthy weight, eat smaller, more frequent meals, avoid trigger foods (e.g., fatty or spicy foods and caffeine), avoid lying down immediately after eating, and elevate the head of your bed.

Please note that this is not an exhaustive list of symptoms, treatments, and preventive measures, and individual experiences may vary. It’s important to consult a healthcare professional for a timely and accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment based on your specific symptoms.

The precautionary measures provided here can help reduce the risk of developing or managing a disease. However, you should consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice based on your specific health condition and medical history.

Important FAQs about the Human Body

What is a human body?

Answer: While there isn’t a single definition of the human body, it can be precisely defined as a complex entity resulting from the collective output of physical and functional components.

Various systems and sub-systems seem to be working at micro and macro levels of organizations. A human body consists of nearly a dozen organ systems, while there are around 80 organs of the body.

How human body is formed?

Answer: The formation of the human body begins with a single fertilized cell. Though seeming simple, that cell is a microcosm in itself. If decoded, the information contained in the DNA will fill several volumes of a human body encyclopedia.

As the formation of the body progresses, the fertilized cell multiplies to create a multicellular structure. Gradual development results in the formation of tissues, organs, and organ systems.

Humans are the most advanced and exceptionally intricate beings on the planet earth. So, the human body is an incredibly complex and highly sophisticated entity which is composed of various structures and systems.

What are the 12 parts of the body?

Answer: The 12 parts of the body are actually twelve major organ systems of the body. The coordinated working and collective output of these twelve parts results in the formation of the human body.

The 12 parts or systems of the body include integumentary system, digestive system, excretory system, cardiovascular system, skeletal system, muscular system, nervous system, endocrine system, exocrine system, lymphatic system, respiratory system, digestive system, urinary system, and reproductive system (female and male).

How does a human body work?

Answer: The working of the human body is based on the collaborative and coordinated output of lots of individual structural and functional units.

Every function of the body is so closely interlinked that a minute malfunction somewhere may result in the disruption of various other functional units. Here you can take the example of a small cut on the finger which makes the restless felt across the entire body.

What is the study of the human body and how it works?

Answer: The study of the human body is called physiology. The job of this scientific discipline is to describe and explain the chemical, physical, and physiological phenomena occurring in the body.

Regarding how the study of human body works, a physiologist will focus on the working of all the smaller and larger functional units.

At the micro level, they will study the behavior of molecules, while at the macro level, they will investigate the functioning of the organ systems and the human body as a whole.

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